How to use matched betting to make $1000 online

If group a win, I loose. If anything else happens(loss or draw) I loose. What they guarentee is that they win their stake back. So, if you bet $5, you will guarentee that you win the $5 back no matter what happens.

Creating income from Matched M88A Betting

Ok, as discussed matched betting with your own money is not a profitable exercising, just a threat cost-free way of betting.. As a UK resident I can only explain how this method can be made use of in the UK, but it is still definately worth reading if you are from the states simply because it is one of the only genuine methods to make a true term profit on the world wide web I have come across (do not get me started on the ridiculous hours I have wasted on ‘online surveys’ and ‘adsense’ for the sake of $10 per month)!

Excellent luck with it if you make a decision to make some cash from it your self, and I hope you identified studying about the strategy exciting if you determine it really is not some thing for you.

Exactly where it becomes lucrative is that on-line book makers have ‘introductory totally free bets’ to entice prospects. At the bookies, you can spot bets on a thing to happen, lets say for a team to win a game of football. If something else occurs (loss or draw) I win.

In performing this, a player does not guarentee any profit. Commonly a corporation will say “if you make a 25 bet with us, we will give you a no cost 25 bet”.

There are two types of places you can use to make bets on the internet in the UK. When you ‘lay’ a bet, you are betting on any outcome but the a single you have laid.

So, use matched betting on your very first 25, and win your cash back. This suggests that when the game is played, no matter what the outcome is, you will win one bet and loose one particular bet. At the time of writing this, when totalling all the introductory offers readily available in on the net book makers there is an estimated 1000 on supply (about $1500).

What now?

To stay clear of loosing funds in human error, you should not go on to try matched betting till you have learnt the techniquecomprehensively.This post is a extremely brief introduction to it and the expectation is that any person who desires to now try it out will take sensible measures to further their knowledge beforehand!

MATCHED BETTING is a kind of bet exactly where you each back and lay the similar group to win. Book makers (shortened to ‘bookies’) and betting exchanges. At a betting exchange, you can do a thing called ‘laying a bet’. This is not achieved by means of gambling, but rather by betting both for and against an occurance happening at the very same time, in order to guarentee the stake of a bet is won back.

The method

Ok, let’s make this as jargon free of charge as feasible….

I lay team a to win at the betting exchange. This is named ‘backing’.

What is matched betting?

Matched betting is a way of profiting from the introductory presents laidon by online betting shops by means of extracting the stake of the ‘free bets’ they offerwithout danger. If team a win, I win. Also worth an initial mention is the truth that to my know-how gambling laws in the USA are really different to gambling laws in the EU and UK. Either you will win at the bookies and loose at the exchange, or you will loose at thebookies and win at the exchange.

As I have a sneaking suspicion anybody who clicks onto this article on a whim is going to be expecting a scam, I am going to begin by explaining that mathed betting is legitimateenough to command its own wikipedia page. Used matched betting on the ‘free bet’, and you obtain the 25 stake, leaving you an quick profit of 25.

Instance:

I back team a to win at the bookies at thai m88

Chelsea star Eden Hazard says Jose Mourinho sent him a message at Porto as he is no longer untouchable

More about Chelsea

“It is true that I am no longer untouchable. But the Belgium international has been the latest player to express his full support for the Portuguese tactician believing he will turn around the team’s poor start to the season.

His poor form have also played a role in the Blues slow start to the m88a season, having suffered four Premier League defeats in the first eight games of the campaign. “Mourinho is the best coach in the world to deal with this kind of pressure.”

I think the coach wanted to send out a message by dropping me. Hazard has also said that the whole dressing room supports the Portuguese manager.

The Belgium has not hidden he is the first to know he is far from his best.

“I was even benched against Porto. But the 24-year-old forward has struggled to replicate that form in this campaign. But we have a large squad at Chelsea and we will need everyone.”

“I do not read everything that he says and everything that is being written about him, but I am not worried too much for him,” he added. The position of Mourinho came under scrutiny following the latest setback against Southampton, but the boss warned that he will only resign if his players withdraw their trust in him.

The likes of John Terry and Cesc Fbregas have since backed the manager, saying he will overcome the situation. You can be untouchable when you are playing well, but that has not been the case this season,” the 24-year-old was quoted by Standard Sport.

Hazard led the Blues to both the Premier League title and the Capital One Cup last season after an impressive campaign, netting 19 goals and providing 12 assists in all competitions to earn the Premier League Players of the Year award. He is yet to score a goal in the new season while was surprisingly drop for the trip to Porto alongside Nemanja Mati.

Chelsea star Eden Hazard believes that Jos Mourinho “wanted to send” him a message by leaving him on the bench during the Champions League 2-1 defeat at Porto on 29 September, to show that he is no longer an “untouchable” to the boss

Discover this info here hhht888

Tottenham stadium will cause ‘substantial harm to area’s historic character’ claim heritage body | Football | Sport

Thats why its important during major stadium redevelopment that London clubs continue to play here.

Tottenham revealed updated plans on Wednesday that shows fans what their new stadium will look like when it is finished, with four asymmetrical stands being covered in a sculptured mesh

But London Mayor, Boris Johnson, recentlyurged the FA and Premier Leagueto avoid such a situation occurring by finding a way to keep Chelsea and Tottenham in the capital while the M88A clubs rebuild their grounds.

Tottenham’s new stadium – all you need to know

Spurs revealed plans in July to transform their current home into a new 61,000 all-seater stadium by 2018 – making it bigger than Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium which holds just over 60,000 fans – and confirmed the arena would host NFL matches when it is completed.

“Id urge the FA and the Premier League to do all they can to accommodate Spurs and Chelsea inside the capital as they reshape their homes at White Hart Lane and Stamford Bridge.”

The Clubs and its heritage architects have worked extensively to ensure that this new terrace is sensitive in its scale to the retained and refurbished Grade II listed Warmington House and appropriately maintains the line of the High Road. Some of these would be located in the atrium to the rear of Warmington House.

The new stadium, though, means Spurs will have to find a temporary home for the 2017/18 campaign – but they are unlikely to be granted use of Wembley Stadium after Chelsea, who will start work on increasing the capacity of Stamford Bridge at the end of the season, are thought to be favourites to secure a deal.

But Historic England, the public body that looks after the country’s historic environment, have expressed their concerns about three Victorian and Edwardian heritage buildings in the area that will be demolished to make way for a wider pavement during the construction process.

The Blues will re-develop their current west London home into a new 60,000-capacity stadium, which will see the Premier League champions play elsewhere for three seasons beginning in 2017 and ending in 2020.

Tottenham have addressed Historic England’s concerns (first raised in July) stating: The Club recognises that the three buildings 746, 748 and 750 Tottenham High Road (The White Hart, The Red House and The Dispensary) proposed to be removed as a result of the Northumberland Development Project do represent a regrettable loss of heritage assets.

Tottenham’s plans to build the biggest club stadium in London is facing objections from Historic England, who believe the north London side’s work will “cause substantial harm” to the character of the area.

Our proposals replace these buildings with a stunning new terrace to host The Tottenham Experience which creates a much wider pavement width necessary for crowd movement.

A spokesman for Historic England said: “We believe Spurs’ latest proposals will cause substantial harm to the historic character of the surrounding area.”

The Mayor told the Standard: “Londons football clubs belong in London. We believe that the substantial benefits of the Northumberland Development Project significantly outweigh any harm arising from the loss of these buildings.. Their supporter base is here in the capital. However their setting is already severely compromised and creates the unacceptable crowd movement issues as a result of the two metre pavement width which forces crowds into the bus lane and the road.

Despite Chelsea thought to be ahead of Spurs in negotiations for Wembley, Tottenham are believed to be happy to share the ground with their London rivals – with one alternative being to play at MK Dons’ stadium:mk.

The Club is committed to recording and salvaging elements of architectural interest from these buildings, such as the shop front of the Edmonton Dispensary and Bill Nicholsons office as well as important features such as joinery. Key elements of the Red House would be included in the Museum, given the role they have played in the history of the Club and the community

m88 facebook

Chelsea midfielder Cesc Fabregas backs “best coach” for the club Jose Mourinho

We have the best coach for the club.

Under scrutiny: Fabregas himself has faced criticism this season

People have not forgotten that five months ago we won the Premier League and a cup, but we have to change the situation fast and soon.

Chelsea face fellow strugglers Aston Villa next in the fun788 league, and three days later they travel to Ukraine where they will be looking to reignite their European campaign against Dynamo Kiev.

. We [Chelsea] are not well, but we will do better.

But the Stamford Bridge hierarchy, as well as John Terry, have since offered their backing to the Portuguese coach . In face-to-face situations he helps me a lot and I respect him for that.

Chelsea are enduring their worst start to a season in 37 years with the champions currently sitting 16th in the table, four points off the relegation zone.

Mourinho himself admitted it is the worst period of his career and shocked fans with a bizarre seven-minute rant following the defeat by Southampton in which he appeared to dare the Roman Abramovich to sack him. Personally, he helped me in a very complicated moment of my career and he gives me confidence.

I will do whatever he asks.

Cesc Fabregas has become the second Chelsea player to publicly back manager Jose Mourinho.

And now Fabregas has added his voice to the choir.

Chelsea’s season so far (all competitions)Correct as of 08/10/15

He is the best coach in the history of the club and the best we can have, Fabregas told Radio Marca

Find more info fun88no1

Negative Effects of Gambling

It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. The two go hand in hand. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

_December_2009.JPG” width=”320″ />

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers

Sportsbetting Posts – Page 1

They reached the top position after defeating Sri Lanka team by an innings and 24 runs.

Tags: India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, Watch India Vs S

[1]&raquo

For Everyone:. Because of their performance they … Indian cricket team is No.1 cricket team in the ICC Test rankings.

For Publishers:

Posts relating to Sportsbetting (0-1 of 1) ( 0.004 seconds )

Site Navigation:

ArticleSnatch Authors:

India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Match Live Score

By: Lucy Hanes | Dec 9th 2009 – The First T20 Match between India and Sri Lanka is going to happen on 09, December, 2009 at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur

Can Top Indian Casinos compare to Las Vegas Casinos? by David Cook

Amenities include a luxurious spa and a state-of-the-art fitness center. Harrah’s Rincon routinely attracts famous acts to it’s entertainment complex. The casino also caters to the trend setting crowd with their new V Lounge bar.

Barona offers visitors Vegas style gaming action, combined with unique dining experiences, a luxurious hotel, and world-class golf. This spectacular highly acclaimed ranch-themed resort and casino has earned various awards for its casino and games, as well as for its restaurants and golf club. . Beyond its top notch gaming, Viejas Entertainment puts on high caliber concerts and the Viejas Outlet shopping center is known for it’s upscale outlet shopping.

With literally hundreds of Indian Casinos spread out across the United States, to give you an idea of the level of quality gaming emerging on reservations countrywide, let’s focus in on a few of the top Indian Casinos leading the way. A-list performers scheduled regularly in the 1,200- seat Pechanga Theater

You might be surprised…

2) Viejas Casino

In addition to great gaming, dining and entertainment, Sycuan Resort offers 54 holes of Southern California’s best golf, championship tennis courts, great overnight accommodations and a relaxing atmosphere to enjoy cocktails and fine dining.

Pala Casino offers award winning gaming, has eight restaurants, a 10,000 square foot day spa, a four-diamond resort with 507 deluxe hotel rooms, including 82 suites, four entertainment venues and an Olympic size pool with 12 cabanas. The Showcase Theatre features great shows and concerts. As one of the country’s newest resort destinations, Pechanga Resort & Casino, an AAA four-diamond property, offers the best of hotel luxury, Vegas style gaming, entertainment, meeting facilities and seven fine dining choices. A new 21-story hotel tower adds to the resort feel and recently was voted as having the Best Rooms, Best Suites, Best Hotel Service and more in 2005 by Casino Player magazine.

Here’s a quick snapshot of 6 Top Indian Casinos in San Diego:

Harrah’s Rincon Casino follows in the footsteps of the Harrah’s gaming brand.

1) Barona Valley Ranch Resort and Casino

Viejas is a well-established and popular Indian casino. Pala routinely attracts big name entertainment concerts as well.

4) Pala Casino

However, just like in Sin City itself, the quality of Indian Casinos varies dramatically.

6) Sycuan Resort and Casino

You definitely won’t be let down by any of the Top 6 San Diego Indian Casinos.

A good place to start is from an area often considered the Indian Casino capital of California and the location of an extremely competitive Indian Casino market, San Diego, California.

Indian Casinos all around the country are shattering the notion that Indian Casinos are a less than par alternative when compared to their Las Vegas counterparts.

5) Pechanga Resort and Casino

3) Harrah’s Rincon Casino

If you are getting the itch to visit Vegas but don’t want to make the trek, you might not have to look much further than your local Indian Casino

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

***

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Omega Man

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. . . 1952-1953).

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Ground Zero

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Gateway to the West

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Update note:Dr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Mr. . . Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

AIDS now had a face.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

The Road to Zero

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

False Positive

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

This makes little sense. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Air Canada

_Castlewellan

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Less Than Zero

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

From a front-line perspective

.  

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Dr. Louis. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. It was so unusual at the time

Play Casino And Poker Online

Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.

The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. Locate a good home game or look

for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. Customer retention is with you.

casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games.

It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.

Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.

casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. . You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

It was so unusual at the time . .  

Update note:Dr.

Gateway to the West

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

The Road to Zero

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

This makes little sense. 

AIDS now had a face.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

From a front-line perspective

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

***

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. 1952-1953).

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Mr. Louis. 

False Positive

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Dr. . Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Ground Zero

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Air Canada

Omega Man

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Less Than Zero

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. . Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St

Make Bets That Assure You A Win

It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets.

All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun..

As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.

By: Pedro Walker

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.

The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.

Online-betting.me.uk provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter

Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly.

The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting

Caribbean Casinos – free article courtesy of ArticleCity.com

The biggest difference between Caribbean stud poker and traditional poker is that instead of playing against other players, you go against the dealer. Located on the premises of the Wyndham Nassau Resort on Cable Beach, the Crystal Palace Casino has about 700 slot machines and 38 tables for games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, and baccarat. During your stay in Puerto Rico, you can enjoy fine dining, exciting nightlife, and spectacular gambling fun all under one roof.

Compared to many other popular casino card games, Caribbean stud poker has a pretty short history.

. Second, the hours that some casinos are open may vary depending on the season, so find out ahead of time before making your plans. The Atlantis’ expansive 30,000-square-foot area, which includes 78 table games and approximately 1,000 slot machines, has helped earned the Atlantis Casino its reputation as an immaculate gambling palace. The Atlantis also features several restaurants, outdoor terraces, and gaming lessons for the novice gambler. Maarten, St. There are so many choices when it comes to gambling in the Caribbean that you’re sure to find the right island with the perfect casino to fit your style and your ideal vacation. Caribbean stud poker is a combination of blackjack and poker – the rules of play are similar between the two games. The four largest casinos in The Bahamas are the Atlantis Casino on Paradise Island, the Crystal Palace Casino on New Providence Island, and The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino and Our Lucaya, both on Grand Bahama Island.

While visiting the Caribbean travelers will find a number of glitzy casinos and hotels and resorts with on-site gambling. Vincent and St. The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino is a luxurious and exciting casino located within a plush hotel that has great choices of various games, slots, and other gambling opportunities. But unlike American and European casinos, the gambling atmosphere in the Caribbean is more relaxed, and most of the island casinos are not open 24 hours a day. Along with state-of-the-art slot machines, table games, and other types of gaming fun, Caribbean casinos also offer other nightlife options including dance clubs, discos, and bars. Although gambling is illegal for residents of The Bahamas, tourists can try their luck at any of the region’s spectacular casinos. Since it began in Aruba, the popularity of Caribbean stud poker has grown tremendously in the region and is even played in Las Vegas. And finally, no one under the age of 18 is allowed in Caribbean casinos, so schedule other activities for the youngsters before you hit the casinos.

Other islands in the Caribbean that feature dazzling casinos and exciting gambling are the Dominican Republic, Aruba, Curacao, St. The combination of sugar-sand beaches and tropical island ambiance with all the glamor and excitement of Las Vegas makes for an ideal vacation destination for many travelers. All players are allowed to see one of the dealer’s cards, which is dealt face up.

Gamers are often drawn to The Bahamas which is popular for great casinos and gambling action. Casinos in Puerto Rico are some of the most exciting in the Caribbean region because of their extravagant historical décor, hot gaming, as well as their award-winning restaurants, live entertainment, array of bars and lounges, and much more.

Caribbean Casinos

 by: Danielle Mitchell

Caribbean Stud Poker

The Crystal Palace Casino is another sizzling casino found in The Bahamas. Many of these glamorous gambling establishments are located in the historic city of San Juan, and most require that their patrons dress formally.

Before heading to the slot machines, there are a few things casino patrons should remember. First, each island has its own laws and rules when it comes to gambling, so be sure to find out the details about the island you visit. This poker variation started in Aruba in the 1980s, reportedly by some cruise ship directors who were out to make a buck. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua. By Puerto Rican law, all casinos have to be located on the property of hotels or resorts.

This article was posted on February 13, 2006

<< Back to “Travel And Leisure” Index

Gambling in The Bahamas

Caribbean Islands Featuring Casinos

Some popular casinos on the island include the Hyatt Regency Cerromar, Hilton Ponce and Casino, Westin Rio Mar Resort Casino, Ritz Carlton San Juan, which is the first Ritz Carlton casino, and many, many more.

Casinos in Puerto Rico

The gorgeous island of Puerto Rico is home to about a dozen old-world-style casinos.

Keyword Search

The Caribbean region has a lot of hot gaming spots and casinos. Finally, the newest casino in the Bahamas is Our Lucaya Resort, which offers several gambling options.

The world-famous Atlantis Casino is the largest casino located in the Caribbean. So not only can you wage bets during your sunny island vacation, but you will also find many other ways to let your hair down at Caribbean gambling palaces

Sports :: How to Make Money Betting on Horse Racing

In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks

In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping

You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.

While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.

Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site

Play Casino And Poker Online

Locate a good home game or look

for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves.

It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit.

casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. Customer retention is with you.

The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.

Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.

casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise